Still, every journey begins with the first step, and every story begins with the first word, so let’s begin with the false ‘god’ of Radiocarbon Dating.
If you believe the scientists, radiocarbon dating is an infallible method of measuring the age of artifacts, plant life, archaeological, human and animal remains, remnants of previous civilization and epochs on earth.
The basic idea behind radiocarbon dating is that it ‘works’ by measuring how much radioactive, or ‘radio’ carbon (14C) is released into the atmosphere over a certain period of time, as the carbon (12C) contained in the organic material being studied degrades and decomposes.
Radiocarbon dating was the brainchild of one Willard F. Libby, who published his treatise on radiocarbon dating in 1952 - and clearly stated the limitations of radiocarbon Dating right up front, as honest scientists were once wont to do.
Libby made the following observations about the accuracy of the method:
1) The atmosphere, biosphere and the hydrosphere (oceans) are the three reservoirs of radiocarbon on earth, with the seas by far and away containing the greatest concentration of radiocarbon.
If the quantity of water in the hydrosphere had changed substantially over the last 40,000 years (to use Libby’s own chronology), and / or the amount or carbon diluted in the oceans had substantially changed over this time period then radiocarbon dating wouldn’t return an accurate result.
(Park all these bits of info in the back of your brain as we go along, we’ll sum it all up neatly at the end.)
2) If the quantity and / or intensity of cosmic rays (another way of describing the particles of energy released by the sun and other celestial bodies, that are constantly bombarding the earth and which are part of our space weather) had substantially changed of this same period of time, then again radiocarbon dating wouldn’t return an accurate result.
Of course, at the time that Libby was doing his research, no-one in the hallowed halls of science doubted for a moment that the world was billions, even trillions of years old, and that the most exciting event that had happened to the planet in the last 50,000 years was just a very slow accretion of mud, well on the way to forming the next Mount Everest in a few more billion years… (sarcasm mine).
RADIOCARBON DATING RETURNS SOME INCREASINGLY ODD RESULTS
For example, when wood grown in the 20th century was radiocarbon dated, it constantly appeared to be ‘older’ than wood from the 19th century. This was explained away, by some guy called Suess, who claimed that mass industrial burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil had changed the ratio between carbon and radiocarbon in the biosphere.
So henceforth, any human remains, animal parts or vegetation from the 20th century onwards would show up as being ‘older’, according to standard radiocarbon dating techniques, than stuff that actually preceded it by a century, or more, according to the calendar.
But never mind! Radiocarbon was still a peerlessly accurate way of dating everything else in the world !!! (sarcasm mine).
Which is when the next set of awkward data started to show up - in droves - that showed that radiocarbon dates were often between 500-700 years out, according to what was presumed to be the fixed historical date of the organic matter being tested.
This was particularly the case with Egyptian artifacts and the standard chronology assigned to ancient Egypt. This perplexing situation suggested that either, the standard chronology being used by Egyptologists was completely ‘off’, or the radiocarbon dating method was inaccurate.
Both views were actually true, but for different reasons.
Over the very short term, i.e. the last 4,000 years or so, radiocarbon dating is actually fairly accurate. Which is when science started to stumble over other awkward ‘data’ from radiocarbon experiments, including some which showed:
1) The last so-called ‘ice-age’ actually only occurred 3,500 years ago (Rubin and Suess, Geological Survey of the USA.)
2) Oil, which science claims takes millions of years to form, was radiocarbon dated by PV Smith of the Esso Research Lab in 1950 at a petroleum-bearing formation off the Gulf, who reported the ‘surprising’ discovery that it was formed in what’s called ‘Recent’ sediment, and therefore “must have been deposited in the last 9,200 (sic) years.”
(Again, set aside the Torah’s (accurate!) dating of the world for now. We’re just trying to show here that even according to the scientists’ own methods and gauge of time, so many of the scientific theories about life on our planet are just plain wrong.)
How could science explain this contradiction?
(The short answer is that they couldn’t, so they hastily shelved any of the radiocarbon data that didn’t ‘fit’ with their preconceived notions, across a whole bunch of disciplines.)
But if that wasn’t enough to think about, there was another huge problem with the radiocarbon dating method: The world has been through many, enormously dramatic natural upheavals and cataclysms since it was created, 5,777 years ago.
Authentic Jewish sources clearly spell this out (see THIS article) - as do many other 'ancient' traditions from other civilisations that modern science likes to dismiss as imaginative hogwash. Let’s very briefly sum up the main points that are covered more detail in that article, before we continue:
1) GOD CREATED 974 WORLDS BEFORE THIS ONE.
There were 974 generations and worlds created BEFORE our current one, in a process that lasted 2,000 years.
2) PREVIOUSLY, WHENEVER GOD DESTROYED ONE OF THESE 974 WORLDS, HE DID THAT BY OVERTURNING THE EARTH FROM THE T’HOM, I.E., FROM THE DEPTH OF THE WATER TABLE
God destroyed the previous 974 generations by flipping the earth’s crust over from the water table, completely destroying all life on the planet in an instant, and returning the world to TOHU AND BOHU, the Hebrew terms for chaos and ‘nothingness’.
3) GOD WILL CHANGE PLANET EARTH (OUR EXISTING ONE) 7 TIMES BEFORE MOSHIACH COMES
Those seven world are:
World 1: Adam and Eve (Year 1 in the Hebrew calendar, 5777 years ago)
Midrash (Bereishit Rabba 10:4) tells us:
Before Adam HaRishon sinned, the heavenly bodies had shorter and quicker orbits. Once man sinned, God caused the celestial orbs to travel in longer and slower circuits. Since then, the apparent circuit of the sun takes 12 months, the orbit of the moon, just under thirty days, etc
Rav Dovid Brown explains:
“In order for the solar year to have been less than 12 months, the earth would necessarily have been closer to the sun that it is now…If the earth was closer to the sun, the energy received from the sun would be greater…greater energy would result in a more powerful earth with capabilities inconceivable to us…The loss of this greater energy would result in a weaker earth and inferior beings inhabiting it.”
To put this another way, the intensity of cosmic rays bombarding planet earth DEFINITELY CHANGED, from current norms, when Adam and Eve were around.
World 2: From Adam to Enosh (Year 1 to Year 1140 in the Hebrew calendar, when Enosh died)
There was a partial flood of the world at this time, and also new mountain ranges sprang up overnight, undoubtedly due to ‘action at a distance’ effects from a passing planet-sized comet or celestial body. Again, this would dramatically affect the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, rendering modern radiocarbon dating measurements obsolete.
World 3: Enosh to Noah’s flood (Year 1140 - Year 1656 in the Hebrew calendar)
Sforno (Parshat Noach 8:22) explains that:
Before the mabbul (Noah’s flood), the apparent circuit of the sun was directly around the equator.
The change in the attitude of the earth after the mabbul, so that the earth faces the sun at in inclination of the axis, is the cause of the varying seasons.
Before the mabbul, the climate was perpetually warm due to the sun striking the earth directly at the equator. That environment was extraordinarily robust compared to the modern world’s, and the earth had greater energy in all its members, mineral, vegetable, animal and human.
Again, clearly the cosmic rays bombarding the planet during this period weren’t occurring at the same relatively ‘fixed’ levels and intensity observed in more modern times.
World 4: The Mabbul (Noah’s flood) (Year 1656 in the Hebrew calendar, 4121 years ago)
Geologically: A foot of the earth’s topsoil is washed away, the rest of the earth is ‘mixed’ with boiling water that contains sulphur, polluting the earth’s ground and weakening it for the rest of the world’s natural lifespan.
Also, the earth received NO ENERGY from the celestial bodies throughout this time, also severely weakening its ability to produce food and support life.
World 5 - aging, physical degeneration and illness (Beginning around the year 2000 in the Hebrew calendar)
The Midrash (in Pesikta D’Rav Kahana, 22) tells us:
“When Yitzhak was born [in 2048], God increased the light emitted by the heavenly luminaries.”
The Gemara in Tractate Chullin, 91B, also explains how the sun changed its course twice, during the lifetime of Yaacov Avinu (who was born in 2108).
And then there were other enormous upheavals too, at the time of Moses and the Israelite exodus from ancient Egypt.
These astronomical changes brought about changes in the cosmic radiation bombarding planet Earth that had direct and immediate results on how the human body aged, degenerated and became ill, from that point on - all of which is born out by the latest findings in bio-physics.
And all these events also affected the fundamental basis for the accuracy of radiocarbon dating.
The last major changes to the physical nature of the world occurred in the time of King Hezekiah (who ruled for 29 years, around Year 3200 in the Hebrew calendar).
In this particular instance, the Midrash in Esther Rabba (3:1) explains that the world ‘gained’ five hours as a result of this astronomical shift, as measured by the ancient sun-clock of Ahaz.
Which is why radiocarbon dating simply doesn’t work, accurately, for anything going back more than around 4,100 years.
That’s also why radiocarbon dating happily assigns dates in the millions (and even billions…) of years to organic matter that is actually only maximally 8,000 years’ old (including the Torah’s assignment of 2000 years to the 974 worlds that preceded ours), because it’s working on the twin assumptions stated at the beginning that radiocarbon decays today at the same rate it always has - which is simply not true!
To quote Immanuel Velikovsky, who painstakingly pieced together so much of the scientific evidence that clearly shows that the events described above did occur, and have left innumerable traces even today:
“Bursts of cosmic rays and of electrical discharges on an interplanetary scale would make organic life surviving the catastrophes much richer in radiocarbon.” So any radiocarbon test would date these remains as being much younger than they actually are.
At the same time: “If invasion of the terrestrial atmosphere by ‘dead’ (non-radioactive) carbon from volcanic eruptions, meteoric dust, burning oil and coal and centuries-old forests predominated the picture, than the changed balance of radioactive and radio-inert carbon would make everything in the decades following the events appear much older.”
And on Noah’s flood specifically, Velikovsky writes that: “The Deluge increased the water basin, or hydrosphere, on earth… It’s quite possible that the volume of water was more than doubled on earth in this one cataclysm.”
STOPPING THE CRITICS IN THEIR TRACK
At this point in the story, the people who like to believe that the world is 14 billion years old (at least) and who have devoted their lives to the church and theology of evolution, and who hate even the suggestion that God might actually exist, and that the Torah is actually true, will start jumping up and down and playing their ‘scientific evidence’ card.
“Where’s the evidence for these statements?” they’ll demand. “Where’s the scientific proof for this heresy that radiocarbon dating is unreliable?!”
(As a side note, if you have two months spare I highly recommend reading through the whole of Immanuel Velikovsky’s collected works on this subject, but at the very least his epic ‘Earth in Upheaval’.)
I’m guessing you don’t have that much time to spare, so this is your lucky day: I’m going to start summarizing a lot of the evidence that shows, incontrovertibly, that the earth underwent a number of enormous upheavals within the last 5,000 years.
It’s scary reading, especially if you don’t believe in God, or don’t want to believe in God, which is usually the real problem.
But scientific evidence is scientific evidence, after all, and should be admitted into the records of discussion. So we’ll pick this back up in the next post, BH.
 (See the following sources: Chagiga 13b, Midrash Bereishit Rabba 3:7, Midrash Tehillim 34:1. Zohar Bereshit 25a).
 Midrash Tanchuma (Yitro 14) tells us: “When God sought to give the Torah He first offered it to all the nations other than Yisroel, but they refused it. He wanted to return the world to its dimension of water. When Yisroel accepted the Torah, the world was stabilised.”
 Pirkay d’Rabbi Eliezer (18) says:
God created seven worlds, or which his favorite is the last. Six of them to come and go, and one which is pure Shabbat.
 (More sources: Sanhedrin 108a, Bereishit Rabba (26:2), Pirkey D’Rabbi Eliezer (22), Bereishit Rabbat 34:11 and 36:1, Agudat Bereishit (10).)
 (Sources: Bereishit (9:3), Brachot 60a, Sanhedrin 100b and 108b, Rashi on Parshat Noach, (6:13))