Each advance of the glacial ice sheet would shove loose rocks to the side, forming ‘lateral moraines’, while those rocks pushed out in front formed ‘terminal moraines’. When the ice subsequently melted and retreated, these stone ‘moraines’ would - according to Agassiz - clearly show where the ice sheet had reached to, before retreating.
Writing in Etudes sur les glaciers, Agassiz stated:
“The surface of Europe, previously adorned with tropical vegetation and populated by herds of huge elephants, enormous hippopotami, and gigantic carnivore, was suddenly buried under a vast mantle of ice, covering plains, lakes, seas and plateaus.”
But while modern science, with its axiomatic belief in the interminably slow pace of evolution, immediately rushed to state that these ice ages lasted for many hundreds of thousands, and even millions, of years, Agassiz’ view was that they were catastrophic events: they took the world by surprise, began instantly, and lasted no more than a couple of centuries.
In that same work, Agassiz stated that these ‘mini ice ages’ came to an end when the ignaeous (i.e. volcanic, made of magma) interior of the earth began to heat up again, resulting in a great deal of seismographic activity, and a general ‘warming up’ of the atmosphere as volcanoes belched forth their fire, and new mountain ranges occurred literally overnight.
In Agassiz’ view, the Western Alps were younger than the frozen corpses of the mammoths that were still being dug out - and eaten - in Siberia.
While the proto-evolutionists, with the avowed atheist Charles Lyell at their head, rushed to adopt whichever parts of the ice age theory suited them, they discounted Agassiz assertion that ice ages came about due to catastrophic events, and were relatively short lived affairs.
Lyell conjured up a million year span for what Agassiz had termed the ‘Great Ice Age’ that he estimated had occurred between the Tertiary and Recent period (with absolutely no scientific evidence to back this up), happily claimed that these continental ice sheets were responsible for all those otherwise disturbing erratic boulders being found all over the place, and the evolutionary bandwagon rolled on.
According to Lyell et al, this new ‘ice age’ theory explained how 10,000 ton erratic boulders that clearly hadn’t originated locally had come to be found at the top of cliffs, and across oceans many thousands of miles away: the continental ice sheet had ‘pushed’ them there.
But not everyone was convinced.
One of the leading antagonists to theory of evolution, and to Lyell’s explanation of how erratic boulders had somehow been ‘pushed’ up mountains thousands of miles away by continental ice sheets was a man called Roderick Murchison, another leading British geologist and member of the Geological Society who was actually knighted for his contributions to the field.
In 1845, after Murchison had spent many months observing the erratic boulders flung all over the great plains of the Russian empire, Murchison wrote:
“Seeing that there are no mountains whatever from which a glacier can ever have been propelled in southern Sweden, Finland, or north-eastern Russian, and yet these regions are powerfully abraded, scored and polished” -
Murchison believed that the ‘something’ in question was probably some sort of huge oceanic eruption, or enormous tidal wave, that had perhaps been repeated on more than one occasions.
Again, let’s just pause to make the point that while we do see that ice sheets in the polar regions of the world expand and contract, these small, cyclical incursions and retractions have never been proven to have achieved even a fraction of the actions in the world that the evolutionists have attributed to them.
Just as evolutionists like to argue that ‘micro’ evolution - where a particular plant, organism or animal can and does adapt to its environment in small ways over time - automatically ‘proves’ that amoebas turned into human beings, the same enormous -and completely unproven - jumps in logic are also required for the modern ‘scientific’ approach to ice ages.
Let’s return to 1865, 25 years after Agassiz had published his ‘ice age’ theory to wide acclaim, where the now famous, senior naturalist was suddenly presented with a huge challenge to his theory.
On a trip to equatorial Brazil, Agassiz noticed that all the things that he’d stated were due to drifting continental sheets, like drift accumulations, scratched rocks erratic boulders, polished stones and fluted valleys, were staring him in the face in one of the very hottest tropical regions of the world.
Agassiz’ woes multiplied, as more reports came in from equatorial Africa showing the same thing, and even more perplexingly, the marks in Africa and Madagascar appeared to show that if an ice sheet had caused them, this ice sheet had spread up from the equator to cover the continent, i.e. in precisely the wrong direction.
These remnants of ice ages past were also found in India, and again seemed to have spread from the equator up across the foothills of the Himalayas, and not the other way around.
Never people to let the facts get in the way of a good (God-less…) theory, the evolutionists did what they always do when faced with uncomfortable information they couldn’t begin to explain: they banished it millions of years into the past.
They decided there must have a number of other ice ages, millions of years ago, in the so-called Permian Age. Still, some rumblings of unhappy conscience still surfaced in the scientific community.
Writing in 'The Origin and History of the Earth’ in 1937, R.T Chamberlin said:
“Some of these huge ice sheets advanced even into the tropics, where their deposits of glacier-borne debris, hundreds of feet in thickness, amaze the geologists who see them. No satisfactory explanation has yet been offered for the extent and location of these extraordinary glaciers… Glaciers, almost unbelievable because of their location and size, certainly didn’t form in deserts.”
But as that explanation didn’t ‘fit’ with the theory of evolution - despite being a perfect ‘fit’ for the evidence at hand - it wasn’t even considered by the ‘modern’ scientific community.
Other anomalies also started to accrue to the Ice Age theory, as the 19th century wore on. While Victorian geologists were detecting signs of ice ages throughout the baking hot heat of Africa and the Tropics, strangely, they couldn’t find any trace of them in places like Greenland, the Arctic Circle and Siberia.
Writing in Science in 1942, R.F. Griggs stated:
“The Islands of the Arctic Archipelago were never glaciated. Neither was the interior of Alaska.”
James D. Dana, an American geologist, also noted this bizarre fact, writing:
“It is a remarkable fact that no ice mass covered the low lands of northern Siberia and more than those of Alaska.”
Stranger still, Swiss scientist O.Heer found the fossilized remains of magnolia trees and fig trees whilst examining the plant fossils found in the Arctic region, during the 1860s, which he documented in his work called Flora Arctica Fossilis, published in 1868.
To quote Velikovsky:
“Forests of exotic trees and groves of juicy, subtropical plants grew in a land that lies deep in the cold Arctic and is immersed yearly in a continuous polar night of six months’ duration.”
Spitsbergen also disgorged a bed of coal, 30 feet thick, which bore silent witness to the fact that the area must have luxuriantly and abundantly forested, at some point in its past. In 1882, Archibald Geikie neatly summed up the conundrum in his Textbook of Geology:
“When we remember that this vegetation grew luxuriantly within 8° 15’ of the North Pole, in a region which is in darkness for half of the year, and is now almost continuously buried under snow and ice, we can realize the difficulty of the problem in the distribution of the climate which these facts present to the geologist.”
Corals only grow in the most temperate climates in the world. It’s out of the question that coral reefs would grow in a cool area of the world, let alone one where it’s permanent night for six months of the year and nearly always frozen.
How does evolution explain Spitsbergen?
It can’t. So the evolutionists pull their favorite stunt, and simply push the problem off to many millions, and even billions ago into the past. What can’t be explained by scientific rigor can be banished by the passage of time.
Yet there is an explanation, one that has been brought down in authentic Jewish sources over the last 5,000 years, and also hinted at by modern science itself.
Compare this description found in ‘The Mysteries of Creation’, By Rabbi Dovid Brown, which talks about ‘World Number 3’ that existed within the last 5777 years, and lasted between the time of Enosh to Noah’s flood:
“Sforno (Parshat Noach 8:22) explains that:
“Before the mabbul (Noah’s flood), the apparent circuit of the sun was directly around the equator. The change in the attitude of the earth after [Noah’s flood], so that the earth faces the sun at in inclination of the axis, is the cause of the varying seasons.
“Before [Noah’s flood], the climate was perpetually warm due to the sun striking the earth directly at the equator. That environment was extraordinarily robust compared to the modern world’s, and the earth had greater energy in all its members, mineral, vegetable, animal and human. For this reason their lives were extraordinarily long.
“If before [Noah’s flood] the sun struck the earth directly at the equator, while the lower latitudes of the earth would have been much warmer than now, the higher latitudes would have been much colder. Today they receive heat from the sun during the summer, which warms the land from the cold of the winter, but if there were no summer, the snows of winter would never melt.
“What are today the higher reaches of the temperate zone would be covered with glaciers, as the Arctic and Antartic are now.” (Emphasis mine).
“So long as the axis of rotation remains in nearly its present position relative to the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun, the outer limit of the atmosphere in tropical regions must receive more of the sun’s heat than the middle latitudes, and the middle latitudes more than the polar regions. This is an invariable law…It is much more difficult to think of a cause which will raise the temperature of polar regions by some 30° F, or more, while leaving that of equatorial regions almost unchanged” - CEP Brooks, Climate through the Ages, 1949
Evolution and ‘modern’ science has no explanation for how equatorial regions were apparently covered by icy glaciers in the past while the Arctic and Siberia apparently weren’t; or why tropical plants like magnolias and water lilies once grew in the frozen wasteland of Greenland, or how luxurious forests once grew in the heart of the permanently frozen Arctic circle.
By contrast, authentic Jewish sources and commentators have been accurately discussing these matters for thousands of years.
It’s clear that the planet’s axis of rotation has shifted over the last few thousand years, as clearly set out by these authentic Jewish sources.
As to HOW this happened in alignment with laws of nature, we will get to that part of the puzzle in due course. Before then, there’s still a lot more scientific evidence that I want to present to you, first.