To quote Joseph Prestwich, a geology professor at Oxford who was considered to the pre-eminent expert about the geology of the ice age in England, and who wrote something verbosely titled: On certain phenomena belonging to the close of the last geological period and on their bearing upon the tradition of the flood, in 1885, these bones were:
“broken into innumerable fragments. No skeleton is found entire. The separate bones, in fact, have been dispersed in the most irregular manner and without any bearing to their relative position in the skeleton. Neither do they show wear, nor have they been gnawed by beasts of prey, though they occur with the bones of hyena, wolf, bear and lion.”
This perplexing phenomenon was also turning up in coastal rock formations in Devonshire, and also in Pembrokeshire, Wales. Prestwich wondered in astonishment why none of these skeletons were whole, why they weren’t weathered, and why none of the bones had been gnawed by other animals.
HOW DID ALL THESE ANIMALS GET CRUSHED TO DEATH SO QUICKLY?
The animals couldn’t have just somehow fallen, alive, into these crevices. “The mere fall [would not] have been sufficient to have caused the extensive breakage the bones have undergone,” mused Prestwich.
And this wasn’t just something he was seeing in the British Isles, either. The valleys around Paris, and the tops of a number of isolated hills in France also contained a treasure trove of crushed and mangled animal bones.
Prestwich described ‘one very striking example’ in Burgundy, a 1430 ft high hill called Mont Genay, ‘capped with a BRECCIA that contained the bones of reindeers, horses and mammoths, to name but a few.
Breccia ( /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either "loose gravel" or "stone made by cemented gravel". A breccia may have a variety of different origins, as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia, tectonic breccia, igneous breccia, impactbreccia, and hydrothermal breccia.
Prestwich was also puzzled by the fact that none of the bones showed any evidence of having been mauled by beasts of prey, or eaten by people. He wrote: “Nevertheless, the remains of wolf were particularly abundant, together with those of cave lion, bear, rhinoceros, horse, ox and deer. It is not possible to suppose that animals of such different natures, and of such different habitats, would in life ever have been together.”
Yet, their remains showed they had certainly died together.
But what had caused their death? Prestwich conjectured that: “we may suppose all these animals had fled [there] to escape the rising waters.”
The same story was told again and again, as animal bones poured out of crevices on the British Isles, the French Mediterranean coast, on Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and also the Rock of Gibraltar.
“The bones are most likely broken into thousands of fragments - none are worn or rolled, nor any of them gnawed, though so many carnivores then lived on the rock,” mused Prestwich. “A great and common danger, such as a great flood, alone, could have driven together the animals of the plains and of the crags and caves.”
When examining the ‘extraordinary quantity’ of hippopotamus bones that were found in the hills of Palermo, Sicily, Prestwich wrote:
“How could this bone breccia have been accumulated? No predaceous animals could have brought together and left such a collection of bones….The extremely fresh condition of the bones, proved by the retention of so large a proportion of animal matter show that the event was geologically, comparatively recent…the fact that animals of all ages were involved in the catastrophe” showed that it was “sudden”.
But what was the ‘catastrophe’ that could have caused such widespread destruction of animal life, so suddenly and violently? Prestwich believed it was some sort of enormous flood, or deluge.
“The animals in the plain of Palermo naturally retreated, as the waters advanced, deeper in the ampitheatre of hills…the animals must have thronged together in vast multitudes, crushing into the more accessible caves, and swarming over the ground at their entrance, until overtaken by the waters and destroyed…Rocky debris and large blocks from the sides of the hills were hurled down by the current of water, crushing and smashing the bones.”
And when did this happen? Not millions and billions of years ago, but in recent times, within the purview of modern man. Prestwich stated that it was “impossible to account for the specific geological phenomena…by any agency of which our time has offered us experience…The agency, whatever it was, must have acted with sufficient violence to smash the bones…Nor could this have been the work of a long time, for the entombed bones, though much broken, are singularly fresh…Certain communities of early man must have suffered in the general catastrophe.”
Let’s just pause here to remind ourselves that one of the two foundations of radiocarbon dating, of which so many of the claims about the ‘proven antiquity’ of the world rest, is that the amount of water in the oceans of the world should have remained relatively stable, to provide a fixed benchmark for the amount of time it takes radiocarbon to decay.
Here is clear, incontrovertible proof that THIS SIMPLY HASN’T BEEN THE CASE! And we’re talking about modern times, when our ancestors were walking around.
Prestwich - who again, was a professor of geology at Oxford University and one of the most well-respected geologists in academic circles - was of the view that something had occurred, within modern times, to cause the European continent to sink beneath the waves, to a depth of as much as 1000 ft, in some places, before the continent was elevated again.
He suggested that the time when this occurred - based on the geologic date he was encountering - was when Egypt was entering the Bronze Age (starting 3200 BCE), and Europe was entering the Neolithic Age - i.e. around a maximum of 5,200 years ago.
When does the Torah tell us Noah’s flood happened? In the Hebrew year of 1656, or around 4100 years ago - bang smack in the middle of the Bronze Age. (As a side note, the Midrash also says that the world was also partially flooded in the time of Enosh, too, and also at the time of the dispersion, i.e. after the tower of Babel was being built, so ginormous earth-changing floods are not an usual feature of the last few thousand years.)
There’s a forest bed in Cromer, Norfolk that kind of sums up the problem the British Isles poses to geology.
The deepest layer of this ‘forest bed’, as the name suggests, is a stretch of ground densely covered with tree stumps, often with interlocking roots, and mostly in the upright position. In the midst of this forest past, bones from sabre-toothed tigers, bears, straight-tusked elephants, rhinoceros, bison, plus glutton and musk ox (two species exclusively found in much colder, Northern climates) were all found mixed together.
How did a Tropics-loving elephant and an artic-loving musk ox come to be in the same patch of Norfolk forest at the same time, and to die there? What’s more, all the plants reclaimed from the forest bed showed that the climate and geographical conditions were ‘very similar to those of Norfolk at the present day’ (W. Wright, writing in the Quaternary Ice Age 1937).
The next layer above the forest bed in Cromer contained artic plants ‘such as to indicate a lowering of temperature of about 20°’ (Ibid). Then, there’s a marine bed which includes creatures that required a temperate climate.
How did all these various creatures and plants from across the globe wind up togehter in a forest bed in Norfolk?
Let’s quote Velikovsky:
“It would appear that this agglomeration was brought together by a moving force that rushed overland, left in its wake marine sand deep-water creatures, swept animals and trees from the south to the north, and then, turning from the polar regions back towards the warm regions, mixed its burden of arctic plants and animals in the same sediment where it had left those from the south.”
To put this into plainer English, the UK was hit by at least one massive tsunami, plus one defacto ‘ice age’ - which quickly disappeared as fast as it came - within the last few thousand years.
Geology Professor R.F. Flint, from Yale summed it up with admirable reserve when he said: “All in all, British glacial stratigraphic research has encountered exceptional difficulties.”
But those problems were by no means limited to the UK.
In the next post, we’ll see how these strange groupings of crushed animal remains were also found in many other places in the world too, not least the good ol’ USA.